*FM Headquarters. Department of the Anny. Washington. DC. 28 September INTELLIGENCE INTERROGATION. Table of Contents. Page. dures and techniques applicable to Army intelligence interrogations, applies to the psychological operations (PSYOP) contained in FM FM Intelligence Interrogation. Chapter 3. Interrogation Process. The interrogation process involves the screening and selection of sources for.
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Interrogation is the art of questioning and examining a source to obtain the maximum amount of usable information. The goal of any interrogation is to obtain usable and reliable information, in a lawful manner and in the least amount of time, which meets intelligence requirements of any echelon of command. Sources may be civilian internees, insurgents, EPWs, defectors, refugees, intellivence persons, and agents or suspected agents.
A successful interrogation produces needed information which interogation timely, complete, clear, and accurate. An interrogation involves the interaction of two personalities: Each contact between these two differs to some degree because of their individual characteristics and capabilities, and because the circumstances of each contact and the physical environment vary.
However, the principles of objective, initiative, accuracy, prohibitions against the use of force, and security apply to all types. Each interrogation has a definite purpose? The interrogator must keep this purpose firmly in mind as he obtains the information.
The objective may be specific, establishing the exact location of a minefield, or it may be general, seeking order of battle OB information about a specific echelon of the enemy forces. In either case, the interrogator uses the objective as a basis for planning and conducting the interrogation. He should not concentrate on the objective to the extent that he overlooks or fails to recognize and exploit other valuable interrogattion extracted from the source.
For example, during an interrogation, he learns of an unknown, highly destructive weapon. Although this information may not be in line with his specific objective, he develops this lead to obtain all possible information concerning this weapon.
It is then obvious that the objective of an interrogation can be changed as necessary or desired. The interrogator must remain in charge throughout the interrogation. He has certain advantages at the beginning of an interrogation, such as the psychological shock the source receives when becoming a prisoner intrrogation war, which enable him to grasp the initiative and assist him in maintaining it. An interrogator may lose control during the interrogation by allowing the source to take control of the interrogation.
If this occurs, he must postpone the interrogation and reassess the situation. To resume the interrogation, a different interrogator should conduct the interrogation. In addition, the interrogator must identify and exploit leads developed during the interrogation.
He assesses the source correctly by repeating questions at varying intervals. Jntelligence interrogator, however, is not the final analyst and should not reject or degrade information because it conflicts with previously obtained information.
The interrogator’s primary intelligennce is the collection of information, not evaluation. Conversely, the interrogator should not accept all information as the truth; he views all information obtained with a degree of doubt. If possible, and when time permits, he should attempt to confirm information received and annotate less credible or unproven information.
It is of great importance to report accurate information to the using elements. The interrogator checks his notes against the finished report to ensure that the intelligfnce contains and identifies the information as heard, seen, or assumed by the source. Experience indicates that the use of force is not necessary to gain the cooperation of sources for interrogation.
Therefore, the use of force is a poor technique, as it yields unreliable results, may damage subsequent collection efforts, and can induce the source to say whatever he thinks the interrogator wants to hear. However, the use of force is not to be confused with psychological ploys, verbal trickery, or other nonviolent and noncoercive ruses used by the interrogator in questioning hesitant or uncooperative sources.
The psychological techniques and principles outlined should neither be confused with, nor construed to be synonymous with, unauthorized techniques such as brainwashing, mental torture, or any other form of mental coercion to include drugs. These techniques and principles are intended to serve as guides in obtaining the willing cooperation of a source. The absence of threats in interrogation is intentional, as their enforcement and use normally constitute violations of international law and may result in prosecution under the UCMJ.
Additionally, the inability to carry out a threat of violence or force renders an interrogator ineffective should the source challenge the threat. Consequently, from both legal and moral viewpoints, the restrictions established by international law, agreements, and customs render threats of force, violence, and deprivation useless as interrogation techniques.
He is aware constantly that his job is to obtain information, not impart it to the source. He safeguards military information at all times as well as the source of information. This becomes very clear when one considers that among those persons with whom the interrogator has contact, there are those attempting to collect information for the enemy.
The interrogator is alert to detect any attempt made by the source to elicit information. The senior interrogator, depending on the supported commander’s priority intelligence requirements PIR and information requirements IRdecides which of these sources will be more effective in the intelligence collection effort. Their physical conditions may range from near death to perfect health, their intelligence levels may range from well below average to well above average, and their security consciousness may range from the lowest to the highest.
Because of these variations, the interrogator makes a careful study of every source to evaluate his mental, emotional, and physical state and uses it as a basis for interrogation. He deals mainly with three categories of sources: Cooperative and Friendly A cooperative and friendly source offers little resistance to the interrogation and normally speaks freely on almost any topic introduced, other than that which will tend to incriminate or degrade him personally.
To obtain the maximum amount of information from cooperative and friendly sources, the interrogator takes care to establish and to preserve a friendly and cooperative atmosphere by not inquiring into those private affairs which are beyond the scope of the interrogation.
FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation
At the same time, he must avoid becoming overly friendly and losing control of the interrogation. Neutral and Nonpartisan A neutral and nonpartisan source is cooperative to a limited degree. He normally takes the position of answering questions asked directly, but seldom volunteers information.
In some cases, he may be afraid to answer for fear of reprisals by the enemy. This often is the case in low-intensity conflict LIC where the people may be fearful of insurgent reprisals. With the neutral and nonpartisan source, the interrogator may have to ask many specific questions to obtain the information required.
Hostile and Antagonistic A hostile and antagonistic source is most difficult to interrogate.
FM Intelligence Interrogation – Chapter 3
In many cases, he refuses to talk at all and offers a real challenge to the interrogator. An interrogator must have self? As a rule, at lower echelons, it is considered unprofitable to expend excessive time and effort in interrogating hostile and antagonistic sources.
When time is available and the source appears to be an excellent target for exploitation, he should be isolated and repeatedly interrogated to obtain his cooperation. A more concentrated interrogation effort can be accomplished at higher levels, such as corps or echelons above corps EACwhere more time is available to exploit hostile and antagonistic sources.
This includes US documents which the foreign nation may have possessed. There are numerous ways to acquire a document, some of the most common ways are: There are two types of documents: Ideally, these and other personal qualities would be inherent in an interrogator; however, in most cases, an interrogator can correct some deficiencies in these qualities if he has the desire and is willing to devote time to study and practice.
Some desirable personal qualities in an interrogatipn are motivation, alertness, patience and tact, credibility, objectivity, interrogatipn
Whatever the motivation, it is the most significant factor used by an interrogator to achieve success. Without motivation, other qualities lose 3452 significance. The stronger the motivation, the more successful the interrogator.
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He notes the source’s every gesture, word, and voice inflection. He determines why intelligdnce source is in a certain mood or why his mood suddenly changed. It is from the source’s mood and actions that the interrogator intrlligence how to best proceed with the interrogation. He watches for any indication that the source is withholding information.
He must watch for a tendency to resist further questioning, for diminishing resistance, for mf, or other tendencies, to include susceptibility. Additionally, the validity of the source’s statements and the motives behind these statements may be obtainable only through the exercise of tact and patience.
Displaying impatience encourages the difficult source to think that if he remains unresponsive for a little longer, the interrogator will stop his questioning. The display of impatience may cause the source to lose respect for the interrogator, thereby, reducing his effectiveness.
An interrogator, with patience and tact, is able to terminate an interrogation and later continue further interrogation without arousing apprehension or resentment. Failure to produce intelligencw rewards when promised may adversely affect future interrogations.
The importance of accurate reporting cannot be overstressed, intwlligence interrogation reports are often the basis for tactical decisions and operations. Without this required objectivity, he may unconsciously distort the information acquired. He may intrerogation be unable to vary his interrogation techniques effectively.
SELF-CONTROL The interrogator must have an exceptional degree of self-control to avoid displays of genuine anger, irritation, sympathy, or weariness which may cause him to lose the initiative during the interrogation.
Self-control is especially important when employing interrogation techniques which require the display of simulated emotions or attitudes. He should try to imagine himself in the source’s position. By being able to adapt, he can smoothly shift his techniques and approaches during interrogations. He must also adapt himself to the operational environment. In intepligence cases, he has to conduct interrogations under a variety of intelligence physical conditions. An interrogator who becomes easily discouraged by opposition, non-cooperation, or other difficulties will neither aggressively pursue the objective to a successful conclusion nor seek leads to other valuable information.
Usually intellivence neat, organized, and professional appearance will favorably influence the source. A firm, deliberate, and businesslike manner of speech and attitude may create a proper environment for a successful interrogation. If the interrogator’s personal manner reflects fairness, strength, and efficiency, the source may prove cooperative and more receptive to questioning. However, depending on the approach techniques, the interrogator can decide to portray a different for example, casual, sloven appearance and demeanor to itelligence the jnterrogation cooperation of the source.
He is trained in the techniques and proficiency necessary to exploit human and material sources. His initial training is in foreign language, and his entry? The interrogator must possess, or acquire through training and experience, special skills and knowledge. Hence, he must prepare and present both written and oral reports in a clear, complete, concise, and accurate manner.
He must possess a good voice and speak English and a foreign language idiomatically and without objectionable accent or impediment. Knowledge of a foreign language is necessary since interrogators work primarily with non?
Language ability should include a knowledge of military terms, foreign idioms, abbreviations, colloquial and slang usages, and local dialects. Although a trained interrogator who lacks a foreign language skill can interrogate successfully through an interpreter, the results obtained by the f, proficient interrogator will be more timely and comprehensive.
Language labs, tapes, or instructors should be made available wherever possible to provide refresher and enhancement training for interrogator linguists.