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Using an inappropriate gas composition to calculate z -factors usually is the result of assuming a constant gas composition throughout the life of a gas reservoir. Now I gotta go burn it up as quickly as possible.
Use of inappropriate correlations might hzndbook significant errors in estimates of reserves of both gas and oil. J Pet Technol 34 Clearly, the critical rate to avoid water coning would be less in the presence of an active aquifer than in the presence of an inactive aquifer, other factors being the same. Reserves estimates based on performance also are subject to considerable uncertainty.
Lacking such support, however, the projection should be confirmed through volumetric means before booking the forecast volumes as proved reserves.
PEH:Estimation of Primary Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Condensate
Statistical correlations for PVT properties reflect the geologic setting from which the reservoir fluids originated. Production histories can be affected by operational downtime, equipment modifications, market conditions, weather, and many other conditions that handvook distort the productive capacity of the property being reviewed.
Wells in the area of interest may be capable of draining more than a “spacing unit.
Examples of such methods are pressure maintenance, cycling, waterflooding, thermal methods, chemical flooding, and the use of miscible and immiscible displacement fluids. Probable reserves are those unproved reserves which analysis of geological and engineering data suggests are more likely than not to be recoverable. J Can Pet Technol 5 4: Depending on the degree of difference and the economic consequences thereof, it might be appropriate to review the performance and volumetric data, as well as the analysis methods, to resolve these discrepancies.
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SPE Form Eval 6 4: From linear regression through each data set, a “most likely” free-water level FWL is estimated at 6, ft ss, which may be used to map proved plus probable oil reserves.
Privatization of numerous national or state-owned oil and gas companies, with the sale of their securities within the U. Unproved reserves are less certain to be recovered than proved reserves and may be further subclassified as probable and possible reserves to denote progressively increasing uncertainty regarding their recoverability.
For questions of interpretation or application, however, the U. The widespread commercial availability of handbooj software and the greatly expanded capabilities of personal computers have increased use of this technology.
Such natural gas is predominantly methane, handbokk it also may contain small amounts of ethane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. N p commonly are used to estimate reserves for oil wells in waterdrive reservoirs. As previously discussed, probabilistic classifications typically specify for proved reserves that. Other improved recovery methods may be developed in the future as petroleum technology continues to evolve.
ChasehDec 26, American Scientist 60 January—February: During the early life of a reservoir, performance-data haandbook might suggest more or less reserves than are indicated by volumetric methods. The projection or forecast never should be made until the engineering analysis has been completed.
Coal Conversion Facts
In general, possible reserves may include 1 reserves which, based on geological interpretations, could possibly exist beyond handboom classified as probable, 2 reserves in handbool that appear to be petroleum-bearing based on log and core analysis but may not be productive at commercial rates, 3 incremental reserves attributed to infill drilling that are subject to technical uncertainty, 4 reserves attributed to improved recovery methods when coa, a project or pilot is planned but not in operation and b rock, fluid, and reservoir characteristics are such that a reasonable doubt exists that the project will be commercial, and 5 reserves in an area of the formation that appears to be separated from the proved area by faulting and geological interpretation indicates the subject area is structurally lower than the proved area.
J Pet Technol 32 6: Analytical analogy methods include using recovery factors e.
See the later discussion in the Reserves Classifications section in this chapter. This process can be replicated in the laboratory, but such tests require special equipment that is not used coall most commercial laboratories.
Instead, the gas in place is measured physically through the recovery of coal samples, the number and distribution of which are important to the estimation of total gas in place pertinent to the property being evaluated. Advances in 4-D Seismic.